Typically it has a calorific value as 10000 cal/gm. The furnaces which are used mainly for heating or pre-heating a large quantity of metal, are the main users of FO. This can be stored in vertical as well as horizontal tanks, above ground or even underground in some cases. The dimensions and capacities of these tanks are predefined in India by CCOE, which is the regulating body for fuel storages.
For direct burning, FO is viscous as well as not suitable for complete combustion. It is pre-heated to 55 degrees Celsius onwards, depending upon application. The flow increases with temperature and it improves the combustion also. A water based scrubber is used in the exhaust chimney of furnace, which arrests considerable amount of carbon suite and improves the emissions.
The entire FO yard, as per IS standards, pre-heating in storage tanks as well as pipes& Pumps etc, pumping station, level controls, control-panels and entire distribution pipeline is designed taking into consideration the application, required capacity of storage, logistics, available space and government norms.
|IS : 1593 – 1982
Table 1 Requirements for fuel oils (Clause 3.3)
|S. No.||Characteristic||Requirement For||Method of Test|
|Ref to [P : ] of
IS : 1448*
|Acidity, inorganic||Nil||P : 2|
|Ash, percent by mass, Max||0.1||P : 4
|Gross, calorific value||Not limited, but to be reported
(See Note 1)
|P : 6
(for reference) and
P : (for routine)
|Relative density at 15/15oC||Not limited, but to be reported
(See Note 2)
|Flash point, [Pensky martens (closed)], Min||66oC||P : 21|
|Kinematic viscosity in centistokes at 50oC, Max||
|P : 25|
|Sediment, percent by mass, Max||0.25||P : 30|
|Sulphur, total, percent by mass, Max
(See Note 3)
|P : 33
and P : 35
|Water content, percent by volume, Max||1.0||P : 40|
NOTE 1: Normally the gross calorific value is of the order of 10 000 cal/g.
NOTE 2: Fuel oil for marine uses in diesel engines shall not exceed a limit of 0.99.
NOTE 3: Recognizing the necessity for low-sulphur fuel oils in some specialized uses;
a lower limit may be specified by mutual agreement between the purchaser
and the supplier.